Category Archive: Waterjet Cutting
Waterjet cutting is a versatile cutting method that uses a high-pressure stream of water to cut a variety of materials into the desired shapes and designs. Due to its precision and accuracy, it is used by a wide range of industries that require parts with adherence to strict tolerances.
While waterjet cutting offers a high level of precision, many factors can affect the accuracy of the cut. To ensure optimal accuracy, it is crucial to consider factors such as operator skill, material, equipment controls, part thickness, and more. By understanding the several elements that affect waterjet cutting accuracy, you can take the necessary steps to improve overall precision.
The Importance of Waterjet Cutting Accuracy
Waterjet cutting accuracy is crucial for producing precision parts. Accurate waterjet cutting offers many benefits, including:
- Part Functionality. Having high levels of accuracy during the waterjet cutting process ensures the functionality of the completed product or part.
- Consistency. Because waterjet cutting is not a thermal process with the adverse effects of workpiece expansion, all of the finished parts can be consistent from one to the next.
- Cost-Savings. Compared to other precision cutting processes, a waterjet cutter offers cost and time-saving benefits. The maximum precision of a waterjet cut is accomplished in one pass.
- Minimal Force. A waterjet cuts with minimal force which eliminates the need for extensive fixturing to hold the workpiece in place. Also, waterjet cutting is a cold cutting process, meaning that virtually no heat is transferred to the material being cut.
Considerations to Improve Waterjet Cutting Accuracy
To ensure the highest level of precision during waterjet cutting operations, there are many important factors to consider. By examining each of the following factors, you can make the necessary adjustments to improve cutting accuracy.
The waterjet cutting machine’s control system plays a major role in cutting accuracy. Machines with more precise controllers result in more accurate cuts. To achieve top-level accuracy, some waterjet cutting machines are equipped with 2 axes of angular control at the cutting head. With this control, these waterjets can eliminate taper in the cut faces.
Having a skilled operator is extremely important when producing tight-tolerance parts. The operator must have a strong understanding of how to create good tool paths and maintain stability as well as how to fixture, inspect, and make adjustments to the part to improve tolerances. Operators must also know how to troubleshoot and maintain waterjet cutting machines to ensure optimal accuracy.
Since the achievable accuracy greatly depends on the type of material being cut, it is important to use material that has consistent hardness throughout and is free of internal tension.
While waterjet cutting is capable of cutting materials with a wide range of thicknesses, accuracy does decrease with thickness. When cutting thicker parts, it may be necessary to cut a test piece first and make adjustments to the program. By fine tuning the program, a well-maintained and properly calibrated waterjet can cut even very thick parts accurately.
Eliminating taper is crucial for ensuring consistent part profiles. Using taper-compensating control of the cutting head will eliminate taper and improve waterjet cutting accuracy.
As with most machines and equipment, maintenance is a key factor for quality work. By following a strict maintenance program and replacing parts at the proper intervals, a high level of cutting accuracy and precision can be achieved.
AquaJet Services Provides High-Quality Waterjet Cutting
The precision capability of waterjet cutting makes it a popular machining process for a wide range of applications. Improving waterjet cutting accuracy is essential for producing consistent, high-quality parts. With over 30 years of fabrication experience and a facility equipped with state-of-the-art waterjet cutting equipment, AquaJet Services provides solutions for all your cutting needs. We are committed to the utmost accuracy to meet your strict tolerance requirements and solve even your most complex cutting challenges.
For more information about our waterjet cutting capabilities, contact us today.
Waterjet cutting is a process in which a supersonic stream of water, usually combined with a granular abrasive, is used to cut parts. Suitable for cutting everything from foam to steel, waterjet cutting is a versatile technology that can cut with exceptional accuracy and edge quality. These attributes make it a preferred cutting method for producing precise, high-quality parts used in aircraft, automobiles, architectural systems, and more.
How Does a Waterjet Work?
In the waterjet cutting process, a CNC-guided cutting head uses a high-velocity jet of water to cut the workpiece along a programmed path. To cut through most materials, a granular abrasive such as garnet or aluminum oxide is added to the water jet stream. Water jets can cut foam, food, rubber, and other soft materials without using abrasive, while water jets with abrasive are required for cutting metals, stone, wood, ceramics, and glass.
Most water jet cutting machines can easily be switched between pure waterjet cutting and abrasive waterjet cutting, enabling this process to accommodate nearly all material types. While waterjet cutting systems can be configured in various ways, they generally consist of the following components:
- High-pressure pump. Waterjet cutters use high-pressure water pumps that create pressure levels of 40,000 to 90,000 psi to produce a supersonic cutting stream.
- Cutting head and nozzle. At the cutting head, the pressurized stream of water flows through a jewel orifice with a diameter as small as a hair to form a sharply defined jet of water. For abrasive waterjet cutting, the stream then draws in a predetermined rate of granular abrasive. Next, the supersonic stream passes through a mixing tube or waterjet nozzle, where the water accelerates the abrasive. This combined stream has enough kinetic energy to cut through hard materials over a foot thick.
- Catcher tank. After cutting the workpiece, the energy of the jet is dissipated in a water-filled catcher tank.
- Abrasive delivery system. A pressurized abrasive hopper delivers the garnet through piping to the cutting head. The garnet is metered into the cutting head with the abrasive flow control system.
- CNC motion control system. A high-precision motion control system accurately guides the movement of the multi-axis cutting head along the predetermined cutting path. This system consists of the software program, operator interface, CNC controller, and servo drive motors with position and velocity feedback.
What Can a Waterjet Cut?
A waterjet cutter can be adapted for a huge variety of materials. This versatility allows it to cut through an impressive range of materials, including:
- Waterjet cutting is a cold-cutting technique, allowing it to cut metals without warping them or thermally altering their properties. Carbon steel, aluminum, titanium, and other metals are often cut with waterjets to create high-quality, high-precision components used in critical applications.
- While superalloys are difficult to cut using traditional methods, waterjet cutting allows them to be cut quickly and accurately without work hardening. Superalloy parts created with waterjet cutting are used in everything from jet and rocket engines to submarines and nuclear reactors.
- Plastics. Waterjets can cut plastics with a wide range of densities and thicknesses, making it an efficient method for producing high-quality plastic parts used in medical devices, electrical insulating products, food manufacturing equipment, and more.
- Glass. With the ability to pierce through glass without shattering it, waterjet cutting is ideal for producing mirrors, window panels, tabletop inlays, solar panels, and other custom-shaped glass products.
- Stone and tile. Stone, tile, marble, granite, and other materials can be efficiently and precisely cut into various shapes with waterjet cutting. Waterjets are commonly used to cut decorative inlays, medallions, and logos.
- The waterjet cutting process excels with difficult-to-cut ceramic materials, making it a preferred cutting option for creating electrical insulating ceramic parts used in aerospace and electronics applications.
- Waterjet cutting can produce the intricate shapes and profiles required for the formation of custom foam cases, dividers, insert materials, padding, and other products. Waterjets cut foam without using an abrasive.
- Pure waterjet cutting can create rubber gaskets, seals, and insulation components with clean edges, precise corners, notches, vent holes, and other specialized features.
Benefits of Waterjet Cutting
A few of the benefits that set waterjet cutting apart from other cutting techniques include:
- Cost-effectiveness. Compared with other high-precision cutting methods, the cost of operating a waterjet cutter is competitive. Other cost- and time-saving benefits are realized through fast drawing-to-cutting transition times, quick setup, and rapid cutting speeds—enabling shorter turnaround times on jobs.
- Superior edge quality.The smooth cuts created with waterjets have a minimal burr, saving time and money by reducing or eliminating the need for secondary finishing.
- Exceptional accuracy.Waterjet cutting is capable of achieving tolerances as close as +/- 0.002″ (+/- 0.05 mm), depending on the system. This capability makes it a preferred choice for high-precision parts requiring intricate designs and tight tolerances. When more accuracy is required, waterjets are a natural fit for finish machining processes because a waterjet-cut part has pristine, unhardened cut faces.
- No heat-affected zones. As a cold cutting process, waterjet cutting eliminates warping, hardened edges, and inaccuracy due to thermal expansion during cutting. This is especially important when working with heat-sensitive materials or creating parts that require extremely tight tolerances.
- Green benefits. Waterjet cutting is an inherently eco-friendly process that eliminates slag formation, toxic fumes, and smoke that are common to thermal cutting methods such as plasma or laser. Waterjet cutting also does not use chemicals or lubricants to cut. Furthermore, most of the waste material is finely crushed garnet—an environmentally benign by-product.
Expert Waterjet Services from AquaJet Services
With its versatility and precise cutting capabilities, waterjet cutting has become a popular cutting technique in a growing number of industries. At AquaJet Services, state-of-the-art waterjet cutting equipment and more than 30 years of fabrication experience allow us to provide solutions for even the most complex cutting challenges. We use 5-axis waterjets to cut complex angles and features with exceptional precision, and we have experience with cutting most materials and thicknesses. We also are a full-service fabricating shop offering design services, so we can take your project at any stage in the design process and see it through to completion.
To learn more about our waterjet cutting capabilities and how we can assist you with your next project, please contact us today.
When selecting the best cutting application for your needs, it is important to have a thorough understanding of the different methods available to you. Some cutting methods are better for extremely detailed and fine work, while others may be more equipped for thick materials. The most common cutting methods available on the market today are waterjet cutting, wire EDM cutting, laser cutting, and plasma cutting.
Waterjet cutting uses a high pressure stream of water mixed with an abrasive to cut materials into the desired shape. It is particularly valuable for its ability to provide accurate cuts without applying heat to the material as well as its ability to cut nearly any material. Wire electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a very specialized process in which an electrically charged strand of wire passes through the workpiece, causing an electrical discharge from the wire that erodes the metal in a very controlled and accurate process. Laser cutting is done by focusing a high-power laser beam at the workpiece to remove material by melting and vaporizing it, creating a smooth precise cut. Plasma cutting, which can only be performed on conductive metals, uses an extremely hot, high-speed jet of plasma to cut through the material.
Each of these cutting processes offers a different set of benefits and uses. While waterjet cutting is by far the most versatile cutting method, the EDM, laser, and plasma cutting methods provide their own benefits for particular products and applications. In this blog, we compare the different cutting methods and their benefits to help you determine which process works best for you.
Waterjet vs. Laser Cutting
Laser cutting is faster and cheaper when cutting thinner materials, but it has more material restrictions than waterjet cutting. Waterjet cutting can be used to shape nearly any material, including metal, plastic, glass, rubber, and stone. Since laser cutting uses heat to cut, it is mostly limited to cutting metals. However, some plastics, composites and other materials like wood and foam can be cut with a laser but with reduced thicknesses. Lasers vaporize the material, which in some non-metal materials causes fumes that can be quite toxic. Some metals are also challenging to cut with a laser, including copper, brass, manganese, nickel, and lead.
While laser cutting is more precise when cutting detailed or intricate patterns, it cannot cut through very thick materials the way waterjets can. Waterjets have no difficulty cutting materials that are too thick to cut in almost any other way. Lasers can cut fast in thinner metals and have a narrow kerf, making them suitable for cutting parts with fine detail. However, it is important to note that since laser cutting produces heat, detailed parts can overheat and warp, whereas waterjets produce almost no heat at all.
Waterjet vs. Plasma Cutting
Plasma cutting uses a high velocity jet of plasma to cut conductive metals. It is an extremely quick method and has a lower operating cost than the other cutting methods. It is also far less precise than laser and waterjet cutting. The heat from plasma cutting can also warp or distort the edges of the cut material, which makes it unsuitable for fine or detailed work. Overall, plasma cutting works as an option for quick, inexpensive cuts that do not require a great deal of precision. If you require more precise and detailed cuts without the risk of edge deformation, waterjet cutting is the better choice.
Waterjet vs. Wire EDM Cutting
Wire EDM machines can cut thin as well as thick metals with precision far surpassing anything achievable by any other cutting process. Parts can be produced that are accurate within tenths of a thousandth, removing the need for secondary machining processes. The downside is that wire EDM is a very slow process and is more expensive than waterjet cutting in cases were waterjet tolerances and surface finish are acceptable. Wire EDM is also limited to only metals, whereas waterjets can cut nearly any material. Ultimately, choosing between EDM and waterjet cutting is a question of what tolerances and surface finish are required. For products that need to be completed quickly and do not require machined-quality precision, waterjet cutting is ideal. Even when the part needs to be machined, in many cases waterjet cutting a near net shape to remove the bulk of the material and then machining to size is still cheaper than wire EDM.
Contact the AquaJet Team to Learn More
When compared with other cutting methods, waterjet cutting offers superior cutting accuracy for the widest range of materials and thicknesses. It is relatively inexpensive and produces very little waste. The process can be used to cut materials that would warp or deform with other methods. It is certainly not the best tool for every job, but it is a very versatile option that cannot be beat in many applications. AquaJet specializes in quality waterjet solutions for a broad range of industries and applications. To learn how you can use waterjet cutting for your next project, contact us today!
Waterjet cutting is an incredibly versatile method used to shape components from a variety of materials. One of its primary benefits is the ability to cut particularly thick materials. With waterjet cutting, thick steel and other materials can be cut accurately and efficiently. Here, we will discuss the potential limitations of waterjet cutting for thick materials, its benefits over other methods, and some tips to ensure quality cuts.
Although waterjets are in many ways ideal for cutting thick materials, the process presents some limitations. Material thickness affects the accuracy of the cut in ways that can compromise the final product, so it is important to use a waterjet service provider who understands these limitations and ways to mitigate them. The most common limitations when cutting thick materials include:
Reduced Accuracy: Greater thickness can result in lower accuracy. In the same way that the accuracy of a gun is decreased the further the bullet gets from the barrel, the cutting accuracy of a waterjet is also decreased as the water and abrasive particles get further from the cutting head. As the thickness of the material increases, tolerances must be expanded to account for reduced accuracy.
- Near Net Shapes: Due to reduced accuracy at greater thicknesses, it is sometimes necessary to cut to a near net size, allowing for some additional processing in order to meet the required tolerance and surface finish.
- Deeper Striations: A waterjet cut surface consists of an upper smooth zone and a lower rough zone, with the rough zone characterized by a distinctive pattern of wavy striations. In any thickness, the striations become more pronounced as the cut speed is increased and can be lessened, or completely eliminated, by cutting more slowly. However, in thicker materials, the striations become deeper and more noticeable and it becomes increasingly cost prohibitive to eliminate the striations by slowing down.
- Longer Production Time: The thicker the material, the slower the cut speed, with cut speeds decreasing exponentially as the thickness is increased. For example, 18” thick steel cuts at almost half the speed of 14” thick steel, even though there is only a 28% increase in thickness. This is the greatest limitation when using waterjet cutting for thick materials.
Despite its limitations, waterjet cutting remains one of the most useful methods for cutting thick materials. In fact, it offers numerous advantages over other cutting methods, including:
- High Quality Cuts: Waterjet cutting can produce high quality parts from thick materials to a high degree of accuracy, without exposing the material to heat.
- Raw Material Savings: Raw materials can be used very efficiently by nesting parts closely together and in some cases even sharing the same cut between two different parts.
- No Thermal Damage: Since the waterjet cutting process does not generate heat, there is no risk of modifying the properties of the material or warping of the part due to heat.
- Speed: Although waterjet cutting of thick materials can take more time, all cutting methods require extensive time to cut through thick materials. Actually, waterjet cutting is significantly faster and cheaper than wire EDM, which is its main competitor in thick metal cutting. When compared with other conventional cutting methods, waterjet cutting often offers superior results for overall production in spite of being a slow process.
- Material Thickness: Waterjet cutting can be used to cut extremely thick materials that would be extremely difficult or impossible to cut using other methods.
Here are some things to consider when choosing a cutting process:
- Material Composition: Consider the properties of the material and the risk of cracking, warping, and breakage. Waterjet operators calibrate the pressure and speed according to the specific material makeup to ensure ideal cutting accuracy without the risk of damage to the material.
- Product Design: Determine the design size, complexity, and level of detail necessary for the product. Waterjet cutting can be used to cut thick materials to net or near net shapes without introducing stress to the part.
- Cost Savings: When budgeting for your project, consider the amount of raw material, expected waste, and consumable materials that will be used in the process. Waterjet cutting produces less scrap and requires very little consumable material.
- Programming, Setup, and Maintenance: In addition to cutting time, consider the amount of time it will take to set up, program, and maintain the cutting apparatus. You will find that waterjet cutting requires very little setup time and can easily be programmed for multiple jobs without significant downtime.
Contact the AquaJet Team to Learn More
AquaJet is pleased to offer custom waterjet cutting and fabrication services for a wide range of materials and thicknesses. To learn more about our quality waterjet cutting services, contact us today!
Waterjet cutting is a cold cutting technique that produces clean and precise cuts on an expansive range of material types. Waterjet cutting originated with pure water cutting for paper and other very soft materials, but evolutions of the technology have placed various additives into the water stream to facilitate the cutting of harder materials.
Pure waterjet cutting simply uses a very focused, pressurized stream of water to make precise cuts. Abrasive water jet cutting adds an abrasive material such as garnet to the water stream, enabling it to cut through harder or thicker materials. In this blog post, we’ll discuss the differences between the two techniques to help you determine which is best for your project.
Pure Waterjet Cutting
Pure waterjet cutting uses a different style of cutting head than abrasive waterjet cutting. The cutting head used for pure waterjet cutting has no mixing chamber and no nozzle. The water exits the cutting head directly after passing through the orifice, creating a very thin, focused stream of water that produces an extremely fine and precise cut. This makes pure waterjet cutting ideal for soft materials.
Pure waterjet cutting is a less invasive process than abrasive waterjet cutting. Because the stream is so fine, almost no pressure is applied to the material being cut. An abrasive waterjet stream is much larger and more powerful, giving it a tendency to push or deform soft materials like foam or rubber. Compare it to trying to cut thick foam with a utility knife. The knife can easily cut the foam, but in doing so, the blade will squash the foam, making it impossible to create a clean precise cut. A pure waterjet stream can create a perfect cut without affecting the edges of the part or the surrounding material.
This makes pure waterjet cutting ideal for materials including:
- Food products
- Thin plastics
Some of the advantages of pure waterjet cutting include:
- Suitable for very light, soft, or delicate materials
- Very quick cuts
- Won’t generate heat
Abrasive Waterjet Cutting
In abrasive water jet machining, a specialized pump is used to pressurize water as high as 94,000 psi. At the cutting head, the pressurized water passes through a jewel orifice, exchanging the pressure for velocity and creating a supersonic stream of water capable of cutting nearly any material.
For abrasive cutting, an abrasive material (usually garnet) is added to the water stream via a mixing chamber within the cutting head. The addition of the abrasive to the water stream makes the tool capable of cutting through significantly harder materials. It’s especially well-suited for thick or hard materials, including:
- Metal (steel, aluminum, copper, etc.)
Abrasive cutting offers a variety of benefits, such as:
- No stress introduced to the material
- Low waste
- Easy setup
- Won’t generate heat
Which Process is Right for You?
Choosing the right waterjet machining process is important to the success of the operation. The selection between pure waterjet cutting and abrasive waterjet cutting should be based on the material hardness, material thickness, and the required level of precision. Both waterjet techniques can cut through a variety of materials.
Cutting techniques that require heat may deform the workpiece or harden the edges, making secondary processes more difficult. Mechanical cutting methods often leave burrs on edges that need to be removed. Simply put, waterjet cutting offers cleaner, more precise cuts than most other traditional cutting methods.
At AquaJet Services, we specialize in abrasive and pure waterjet cutting and our equipment can cut through nearly any material. Contact us today for more information about our capabilities.
Waterjet cutting is a versatile fabrication process that uses a highly pressurized jet of water, sometimes mixed with an abrasive compound, to cut and shape the workpiece. Its usefulness in the manufacturing sector stems from its ability to cut very thick materials and its accommodation of an extremely broad selection of materials, including the following:
Waterjets can accommodate thicknesses that are unachievable with nearly any other cutting method, from the thinnest shim stock, all the way up to massive plates with thicknesses of 12 inches (and greater!) The waterjet process also eliminates the need for secondary processing to create highly accurate parts.
Materials Accommodated by the Waterjet Cutting Process
Some of the typical materials which can be cut by the waterjet cutting process include:
When used for cutting metals, waterjet cutting offers several benefits. Unlike traditional cutting methods, in waterjet cutting, the cutting area experiences very little heat or friction, allowing parts to be processed without changing the properties of the material or introducing stress. Even metals that are particularly difficult for conventional cutters due to their exceptional hardness, such as hardened tool steel, can be easily cut by waterjets, without producing heat-affected zones.
Metals often processed by waterjet cutting include:
- Carbon steel
- Stainless steel
- Red Metals (Copper, Brass and Bronze)
- Tool Steel (annealed or hardened)
Difficult-to-cut special superalloys—such as Hastelloy, Inconel, Incoloy and Waspaloy—are particularly challenging for traditional cutting methods, as they tend to be too hard or tough to cut cleanly and cause undue wear on cutting tools. Waterjets, however, can cut even the most difficult superalloys quickly and precisely without producing excessive heat or distortion.
Similarly to how it handles metals, the waterjet cutting process offers several benefits for plastic cutting operations. For example:
- For fiber-reinforced plastics—such as carbon fiber, G10-FR4, and Kevlar—the process reduces the risk of delamination, resin burn, and fiber fraying which are very difficult to overcome with traditional machining methods.
- For general plastics—such as ABS, UHMW, PVC, acetal, polycarbonate, and nylon—the waterjet cutting process is preferred because of its ability to cut quickly without producing fumes or dust. Also, most plastics have a high coefficient of thermal expansion, making them dimensionally unstable when subjected to friction and heat. Since waterjets transfer virtually no heat to the workpiece, they can produce very accurate plastic parts.
For glass cutting operations, waterjet cutting offers a very unique advantage in that the material can be cut into any shape, including delicate parts with very fine detail. Whereas traditional cutting methods might cause glass to break due to the pressure applied by the cutting tool, waterjet cutting offers precise cutting with very little pressure on the material. Even multi-layered panels like laminated glass and bullet-proof glass can be easily and quickly cut with a waterjet.
Stone and Tile
The waterjet cutting process is suitable for the precision cutting of any stone material. As with glass, conventional cutting methods are very limited in their ability to cut stone into anything but simple shapes. The waterjet process can produce the most intricate shapes in stone and nearly eliminates the risk of fracturing and crazing to which stone and tile are very susceptible. Typical applications involving these materials include the cutting of tiles for floor medallions as well as cutting large slabs of stone for countertops or architectural panels.
Most ceramics, including abrasion resistant and refractory ceramics, can be cut using waterjets. Similar to glass and stone, ceramics can be very brittle. Some types of ceramics can be significantly harder than steel, making them one of the most difficult materials to cut. The exceptional versatility of the waterjet cutting process makes it one of the best options in the manufacturing of ceramic parts.
Rubber and Foam
Waterjet cutting is an ideal method for the production of many rubber and foam parts. For materials that would normally be soft enough to cut with a knife, a special water-only head can be installed. This unique head uses a much smaller orifice and no abrasive media to create an ultra-fine stream of high-pressure water that applies almost no stress to the material to produce a very fine cut.
Versatile Waterjet Cutting Services From Aquajet
Aquajet Services is a custom fabricating business offering precision waterjet cutting and fabricating services. We provide the highest quality custom waterjet cut parts to even the most stringent tolerances. Regardless of the complexity of your project, our team is ready to take it on and overcome the challenge. By maintaining a large stock of materials in a variety of sizes, streamlining production operations, and employing tracking methods, we are able to deliver your products with a faster turnaround.
For more information on our waterjet cutting services, contact us today.